linux 🐧


Creating boot USB sticks/microcards on macOS

A real quick-and-dirty way.

#1: Get an operating system image

You gotta get a *.img file somehow. Most distributions distribute them as compacted versions (tar, gzip, xz, etc.).

If all you've got is a *.iso file, convert it to *.img using hdiutil:

hdiutil convert -format UDRW -o /output.img /path/to/your/file.iso

#2: Prepare your removable

Format your removable as FAT32.

#3: Now, find the physical address of your removable

Plug your removable into your macOS system and run:

diskutil list

You'll see something like this:

/dev/disk0 (internal, physical):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:      GUID_partition_scheme                        *100.0 GB   disk0
   1:                        EFI EFI                      79.0 MB   disk0s1
   2:          Apple_CoreStorage HD                       99.0 GB   disk0s2
   3:                 Apple_Boot Recovery HD             650.0 MB   disk0s3

/dev/disk1 (internal, virtual):
   #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
   0:                  Apple_HFS HD                      +98.0 GB   disk1
                                 Logical Volume on disk0s2

/dev/disk2 (external, physical):
  #:                       TYPE NAME                    SIZE       IDENTIFIER
  0:     FDisk_partition_scheme                        *2.0 GB     disk2
  1:                 DOS_FAT_32 SD                      2.0 GB     disk2s1

Now figure out which one is the physical address of your removable disk.

TL;DR: diskutil list lists all your disks, both physical and virtual. You'll have to figure out which physical disk is your removable, but you can generally check it through the storage capacities (in the example, it's a microsd capable of 2GB storage).

#4: Copy the raw data to your disk

After identifying the physical address of your removable, run:

diskutil unmountDisk <your removable disk address>

According to the example above, it would be:

# diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk2

Then use dd to copy the contents your `\*.img file into your disk:

sudo dd if=path/to/your/file.img if=<your-removable-disk> bs=1ms

Pro tip: Use GNU dd to get progress reporting

The dd binary that ships in macOS does not report progress during its operations, but the GNU version of dd does. In macOS, you can install it through the Homebrew package coreutils (brew install coreutils). The GNU dd will then be available in your $PATH as gdd (the coreutils package prefixes its binaries with a g - god knows why).

With GNU dd in place, you can run it just like you would do in dd, with an additional option, status=progress:

gdd if=./your-image.img of=/dev/disk2 status=progress bs=8388608

Note: the parameter bs of GNU dd seems to work only with a quantity of bytes and does not understand magnitude suffixes (eg: K fo kylobyte, M for megabyte, etc.), so you must inform a number with no suffixes. It defaults to 512, but you must inform your own. Since 512 is very small, you can use 1024 for read/write 1KB at a time, 2048 for 2KB, etc. - I've been using 8388608 (8MB) and it works well - though writing to a microsd imposes its own writing speeds.

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